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Headlines, headers, pictures and tables

Headlines How headings are numbered has already been explained above. In Word, you can also […]

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Title page of thesis

Title page The appearance of the title page of your diploma thesis will usually be […]

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Word processing and typography

Tips for word processing, typography and layout design for scientific theses. Your word processor should […]

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Headlines, headers, pictures and tables

Headlines

How headings are numbered has already been explained above. In Word, you can also have the headings automatically numbered. This occasionally causes problems, so you can manually number the headings if necessary. However, decide on one of the two methods.

Decide how to design the headlines; many simply mark the headlines off fat. Please refrain from underlining (you should refrain from this throughout the document). It may also be advisable to make the titles larger in scale and not bold. The first order heading could be 18pt, the second order 15pt, and the third order then 12pt as the running text. Also keep in mind that a heading should be closer to the paragraph it belongs to than the previous paragraph – according to the design rule that related should be grouped together. In addition, the headlines are always left aligned, not as a block! Also clear the hyphenation in the headings.

Headers

The layout of the headers is often not required, but you can help your reader by inserting a live headline. This means that in the header z. For example, the first order heading is always repeated – very helpful for the reader’s orientation in the text!

To insert a live headline, you should have previously structured all headings (ie numbered “Heading 1”, etc.). Double click on the header; In the “Insert” tab you now go to “Text” on “Quick Blocks” and “Field”. In the first window select “StyleRef” and in the second “Heading 1”. The headline now always shows the first-order heading.

Pictures, tables

For example, use illustrations and tables in your thesis to underline statements. Do not just insert any pictures without referring to them in the text of your scientific work. Each image is labeled, the caption is under the image, whether with “image” or “image”, that’s up to you. Numbering should not be missing. The caption should, typographically, be closer to the image than the next paragraph. The font size can be quite small, z. B. in size of the footnote text with 10pt. You can orient illustrations and font centered, but left or even right alignment is also possible.

Creating tables can be difficult if you do not want to use the default layout, where each cell has a frame; z. For example, you could underline the headers of the tables with a light gray. Likewise, you can hide all frames, only vertical or horizontal only. The font size within the tables should be the same as the body text, but it may be smaller, especially for large tables.

Sometimes a spreadsheet does not fit on a single page, then make sure that the headings of the spreadsheet are repeated on the following page (you can then set this under “Layout” – “Data”).

To insert a table, go to Table in the “Insert” tab and select the scope of the table; Word will create a corresponding table in standard formatting. Using a common table text style, you can unify it for all tables in the document.

Tables are also labeled, but the caption (tab or table) is usually above the table. Insert a caption analogously to the illustration – mark entire table, right-click, “insert caption”.

Main text

Of course, the body text is what matters most in your scientific thesis; However, the potential reader is already taken the pleasure of reading, if the design of the other elements is not right.

In the course of the development of writing, the art of making books, of letterpress printing and of typography, a multitude of design rules have emerged which have the purpose of improving the readability of a copywriter. Of course, these also change regularly, always according to the spirit of the times. Many of the rules and terms used by typographers have survived the early days of printing to this day.

Some of these rules will also be incorporated in the design of your diploma thesis or master’s thesis. Much is also given by the respective scientific institutes. Thus, the serif font Times New Roman has become established as a font for humanities work (serifs are the check marks on the letters, some of which typographers assume improves legibility). Some dissertations also use the Garamond, a noble font with beautiful italics. For many science theses Arial is used, a completely unfussy and functional font without serifs.

Normally, the font size for the body text of scientific papers is 12pt; Footnotes are then set in 10pt, possibly also the contents of tables and labels. For labels, higher font sizes can be used.

The line spacing should usually be one and a half times the font size. Typographically more common, however, is a line spacing of 1.2. That looks better and makes it easier to read. If in doubt, ask your supervisor if you are not sure if you can reduce the line spacing slightly.

The entire text is shown in the block sentence. To avoid ugly white spots in the lines, use a hyphenation. In the “Page layout” tab, click on “Hyphenation” and “Automatic”. When finalizing your text, however, you should check the separation again carefully; Word often separates very nonsensical.

Tip: To separate a word that Word did not split because it did not recognize it, place the cursor where you want to split and press CTRL + -. This can often force manual separations.

To identify paragraphs more clearly, you have different options. Often, today, especially on the Internet, it is possible to observe intervals by paragraphs. These are usually half the line spacing (so with a 1.2 line spacing of 14.4pt, the distance after a paragraph could be 7.2pt). Tradtitioneller is the variant with indents. Each first line of a paragraph, which does not stand for headings, block quotes, tables and the like, gets a feeder of about 0.5 cm. This variant also forces you to write not too short paragraphs, because paragraphs that are distributed only on two lines and have a collection look ugly and make the text image restless.

Also avoid the so-called cobbler boys and whore children. At the end and at the beginning of a page, there should be no single lines according to a typographic rule, always at least two, better three lines together.

Quotes that go over more than two lines should be formatted as “block citations”. You will then get your own paragraph, possibly a smaller font size and are slightly indented on the left and / or right. Use your own style for this.

You can control many of these settings using the paragraph settings: Click on a paragraph on the right and go to “Paragraph” in the menu. In the following window you can set the distances before and after paragraphs as well as the line spacing; In the tab “Line and page break”. Sales control prevents cobbler boys and whore children. You can also suppress hyphenation for individual paragraphs here

Unfortunately, the topic “layout and typography of a scientific paper” can not be exhaustively treated here; in particular, book publications have not been discussed at all. Work independently on the layout and typography of a scientific paper. The design is the first impression a reader of your work will have, good design is a service to the reader that you should not forget.